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Types of terrain
Querciola vineyard: shale clay and palombino clay; chalky marl and chalky marble in alternate strata. Cretaceous period. 220 metres above sea level.
Fornace vineyard: prevalentemente argilloso, collina terrazzata con filare a centro gradone. Altitudine 500 m s.l.m.
Beruzzo vineyard: soils of sedimentary origin. Quaternary period.  180 metres above sea level.

Types of vine training: Spurred cordon, alberello.

Density of planting (per hectare)
• Beruzzo 1 vineyard: 3,333 plants per hectare
• Beruzzo 2 vineyard: 4,166 plants per hectare
• Querciola vineyard: 2,222 plants per hectare
• Fornace vineyard: 5,000 plants per hectare

Grape varieties
• Beruzzo 1 vineyard: Ansonica, Vermentino;
• Beruzzo 2 vineyard: Merlot, Malvasia Nera, Malvasia Bianca di Candia;
• Querciola vineyard: Aleatico, Sangiovese, Alicante, Cabernet Sauvignon, Trebbiano.
• Fornace vineyard: Sangiovese.

Number of bottles produced per year: around 18,000

Number of quintals produced per hectare: 45

Work carried out in the vineyard
Work done on plants: manual pruning and manual removal of shoots during February, manual disbudding in May (removal of basal shoots and second and third fruiting buds), pinching out of secondary shoots during June, manual canopy management in July, tying the growth back into the vines without cutting it off in order to allow the plant to mature the fruit and not put out new shoots. Manual harvest in the months of September and October.
Work on the land: cutting the pruned material up and turning in of organic matter (prunings, animal or green manure, grass) in February, laying bare the foot of the vines with a small plough in March, deep scarifying of the soil for aeration in March-April, mulching and turning in to eliminate invasive weeds between the rows at the beginning of summer.
Vineyard treatments: absolute exclusion of chemical products. We only use pure sulphur either in powder or soluble forms and Bordeaux mixture (copper sulphate and hydrated lime). From 2014 we experience the use of clays (zeolite type), propolis and herbal teas of herbs collected in our fields and dried by ourselves.

Wine making
Wines are made in open conical casks of oak and chestnut. Maceration is carried out for the entire two to three week period of fermentation without additions of a chemical or biological nature. Maceration is carried out for the white wines as well as for the reds. Rosé: traditional raised cap technique.  No filtration.  Maturing in wood (barriques, barrels of 500 litres and large barrels from 10-17 hectolitres), with the possible addition of small doses of sulphur. We only use old barrels: wood is used as a breathable container, not as a substance which confers its flavour on the wine.

In respect of nature and seasonal pattern, our wines change much depending on the year, both for what concerns the single-variety, and for what concerns the blends.

This “seasonal variation” is also the result of the continuing research for a wine that, besides being made by nature, reflects more and more territory.

All our wines are IGT Toscana or Maremma Tuscana.